Thursday , January 28 2021

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Gray Matter Volume in the Temporal, Frontal, and Cerebellar Regions in the General Population, Hacker News


according to the World Health Organization, dementia is a global epidemic, with (million people affected and estimated economic costs of approximately US $ (billion per year globally.)(1)

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1World Health Organization.Towards a Dementia Plan: A WHO Guide.(): /www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/dementia/policy_guidance/en/;****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** (************************** Google Scholar)See all References)Therefore, dementia risk reduction is a focus of current research in addition to treatment and cure.(2) ****************

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(2) *********************Prince, M., Wimo, A., Guerchet, M., Ali, G.-C., Wu, Y.-T., and Prina, M.World Alzheimer Report******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** The Global Impact of Dementia.Alzheimer’s Disease International [.94] ,         London, UK;**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
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******************** See all references [–26, –21, –11] **********Physical inactivity is discussed as 1 of 7 risk factors for Alzheimer disease.

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******************** (x[–26, –21, –11]) 3Bar nes, D.E. and Yaffe, K.

The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevalence.Lancet Neurol .******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         : – () ************************************Google Scholar

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************************ See all referencesCardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), which refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during physical activity, represents a major component of physical fitness and can be enhanced through regular physical activity.(4) ****************

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Myers, J., McAuley, P., Lavie, CJ, Despres, JP, Arena, R., and Kokkinos, P.Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.Prog Cardiovasc Dis.**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         :********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** – (*******************

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********************************************************** See all references*********************Furthermore, CRF is a more valid and objective measure of physical activity compared with self-reported physical activity.

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*************** Swift, DL, Lavie, CJ, Johannsen, NM et al.Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training in primary and secondary coronary prevention.Circ J

.****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         **************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** [–26, –21, –11] :********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** [.81]Google Scholar**************************************See all references[–26, –21, –11] Higher CRF is associated with lower risks of cardiovascular diseases

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4Myers, J., McAuley, P., Lavie, CJ, Despres, JP, Arena, R., and Kokkinos, P. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.Prog Cardiovasc Dis.**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         :********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** – (*******************

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********************************************************** See all references*********************

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Gupta, S ., Rohatgi, A., Ayers, CR et al.Cardiorespiratory fitness and classification of risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.Circulation

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************************ Google ScholarSee all References******************* and metabolic syndrome,

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Wedell-Neergaard, AS, Krogh-Madsen, R., Petersen, GL et al.Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome: Roles of inflammation and abdominal obesity.PLoS One [–65, –29, –3] .**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         :1 –
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8Ingle, L., Mellis, M., Brodie, D., and Sandercock, GRAssociations between cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome in British men.Heart [–26, –21, –11] .;         :

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which overlap with risk factors for Alzheimer disease

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(3) *******************Barnes, DE and Yaffe, K.

The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevalence.Lancet Neurol .******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         : – () ************************************Google Scholar

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************************ See all referencesand vascular dementia:****************************** (9) **************** [–26, –21, –11]

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Kalaria, RN , Maestre, G.E., Arizaga, R. et al.

Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in developing countries: prevalence, management , and risk factors.Lancet Neurol .********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         7:816 –

Google Scholar*******************See all referencesdiabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Moreover, CRF is inversely associated with depression severity

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******************** (x[–26, –21, –11]) (*********************Papasavvas, T. , Bonow, RO, Alhashemi, M., and Micklewright, D.Depression symptom severity and cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy and depressed adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sport Med

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and cancer mortality.**************************************************

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[–26, –21, –11]Schmid, D. and Leitzmann, MFCardiorespiratory fitness as predictor of cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Ann Oncol [–26, –21, –11] .**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** [–26, –21, –11] :**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** (-) *******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

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See all referencesCurrent literature suggests a positive relationship between CRF and gray matter (GM) volumes of the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus.

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Hall, PA, Bickel, WK, Erickson, KI, and Wagner, DDNeuroimaging, neuromodulation, and population health: the neuroscience of chronic disease prevention.Ann NY Acad Sci [.001] **************.**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         :– 264Google Scholar********************************************* See all referencesFindings concerning white matter (WM) volumes are heterogeneous but point to higher WM volumes, fewer WM lesions, and improved WM microstructure in relation to higher physical fitness.

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Sexton, CE, Betts, JF, Demnitz, N. , Dawes, H., Ebmeier, KP, and Johansen-Berg, H.A systematic review of MRI studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and activity and the white matter of the ageing brain.Neuroimage

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**************************************See all references [–65, –29, –3] Existing studies were often limited by small study samples (rarely exceeding a few hundred participants), strongly selected patient groups (such as those with multiple sclerosis, heart failure, Alzheimer disease, or mild cognitive impairment), or restriction to older adults. Thus, larger, well-powered studies are needed to provide conclusive evidence for effects of CRF on specific brain regions.

Given the beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive decline and dementia, as suggested by meta-analyzes of observational studies,

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Blondell, SJ, Hammersley-Mather, R., and Veerman, J.Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia? a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.BMC Public Health.**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         :

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Bherer, L., Erickson, KI, and Liu-Ambrose, T.A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults.J Aging Res [–26, –21, –11] .****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************:

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********************** [–26, –21, –11] [–26, –21, –11] Google Scholar*********************See all ReferencesWe expect that high CRF may counteract brain atrophy related to brain aging and dementia. We used data from (adults aged) ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** to (years from 2 independent population-based cohorts (Study of Health in Pomerania) and SHIP-Trend)

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**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************Völzke, H., Alte, D., Sch midt, C.O. et al. Cohort profile: the study of health in Pomerania.Int J Epidemiol [–26, –21, –11] .******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************: ************ 0305 – (************************************

Google Scholar************************** See all references*********************to investigate the association between CRF measurements as assessed by standardized cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and brain volumes. We conducted state-of-the-art voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyzes to evaluate potential GM and WM associations on a more precise level of spatial resolution. (******************************************************************** () ************************************************************************** (Participants and Methods)

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**** SHIP consists of 2 independent population-based samples of adults from a northeastern German region. In brief, the first sample (SHIP-0) was examined from through 2001. SHIP-0 was a stratified cluster-random sample of 30522 individuals; of the net sample (without migrated or deceased persons) of (eligible individuals, (**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************** (women) participated (response rate, 71 .8%). A second examination cycle (SHIP-1) was conducted from through 2005 and comprised 3317 participants. From June (**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************, (******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************, through September (************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************, , a third examination cycle was conducted (SHIP-2, N=). Concurrent with SHIP-2, a new age- and sex-stratified random sample, SHIP-Trend-0, of 11, (individuals) net sample size of 7766) was drawn and () (women) participated (response rate, (1%).[.94] **************

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Völzke, H., Alte, D., Schmidt, CO et al. Cohort profile: the study of health in Pomerania.Int J Epidemiol [–26, –21, –11] .******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************: ************ 0305 – (************************************

Google Scholar************************** See all references*********************Examinations for SHIP-Trend-0 were conducted from September 1, (****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************, through September (**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************, 2016. More details about the study designs, recruitment, and procedures have been published elsewhere.

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Völzke, H., Alte, D., Schmidt, CO. et al. Cohort profile: the study of health in Pomerania.Int J Epidemiol [–26, –21, –11] .******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************;         ****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************: ************ 0305 – (************************************

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