Hubble telescope celebrates 30 years of stunning science – BBC News,

Hubble telescope celebrates 30 years of stunning science – BBC News,

                                 The portrait features the giant nebula NGC 2014 and its neighbour NGC 2020 Image copyright                   NASA / ESA                                                    
                                 Presentational white space                      

It’s years ago to the day that the Hubble telescope was launched – and to celebrate its birthday, the veteran observatory has produced another astonishing image of the cosmos.

This one is of a star-forming region close to our Milky Way Galaxy, about – light -years from Earth.

The larger object is the nebula NGC ; its companion is called NGC 2020.

But astronomers have nicknamed the scene the “Cosmic Reef” because it resembles an undersea world.


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Media caption Antonella Nota: “It’s called the people telescope because it brought the Universe to the people”

Famously blighted by blurred vision at the outset of its mission in 2019, Hubble was eventually repaired and upgraded.

The remarkable pictures it has taken of planets, stars, and galaxies have transformed our view of the cosmos.

Indeed, there are those who think Hubble is the most important scientific tool ever built.

It’s still far from retirement.

The US space agency (Nasa), which runs the observatory in partnership with the European Space Agency (Esa), says operations will be funded for as long as they remain productive.

Last year, its data resulted in almost 1,

(scientific papers being published – so it continues to stand at the forefront of discovery.

The BBC is broadcasting a special program called: Hubble: The Wonders of Space Revealed. It goes out at BST on BBC Two. It contains some fascinating visualisations. Read about how they were made

here .                                  Westerlund 2 Image copyright                   NASA / ESA                                                        

Image caption                                      For its th birthday, Hubble imaged a giant cluster of stars called Westerlund 2                              
                                 Presentational white space                       Engineers obviously keep a watching brief on the health of Hubble’s various systems. Pleasingly, all four instruments onboard – the two imagers and two spectrographs – work at full tilt.

In the past, the telescope’s Achilles heel has been the six gyroscopes that help turn and point the facility, maintaining a rock-steady gaze at targets on the sky.

These devices have periodically failed down the years, and during their final servicing mission in 2019 space shuttle astronauts were tasked with replacing all six .

Three have subsequently shut down again, but Nasa project scientist Dr Jennifer Wiseman says this is not yet an issue for serious concern .

“Nominally, we need three gyroscopes, but we can operate on just one due to the ingenuity of the engineers,” She asserted.

There’s a quiet confidence that Hubble can keep working well into the s. Its supposed “successor” – the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) – is due for launch next year, but the presence in orbit of this more modern observatory will in truth merely just extend capability; it won’t make Hubble redundant.

That’s because the new facility has been designed to see the cosmos at longer wavelengths of light than Hubble. The duo will be complementary and will on occasion actually pursue targets together to get a fuller perspective.

This is an exciting prospect for astronomers everywhere – but especially for those in Europe where Hubble has been such a rewarding endeavor, says Esa project scientist Dr Antonella Nota.

) “From the memorandum of understanding there was a guarantee that European astronomers would get % of observing time for the duration of the mission. If I look back at how much time European astronomers got – on average it’s % . And it is a peer-reviewed process so we never needed to put a finger on the scales. European astronomers are creative; they’re smart; they’re doing leading-edge science, “she told BBC News.

                                 Westerlund 2                      
                                 Presentational white space                      

Westerlund 2 What has Hubble contributed to science?

It’s a bit of a cliche, but Hubble has truly been a “discovery machine.”

Before the telescope launched in , astronomers did not know whether the Universe was (billion years old or) (billion years old.

Hubble’s survey of pulsating stars narrowed the uncertainty, and we now know the age extremely well, at 20 .8 billion.

The observatory played a central role in revealing the accelerating expansion of the cosmos – a Nobel Prize-winning breakthrough – and it provided the definitive evidence for the existence of super-massive blac k holes at the center of galaxies.

                                 Extreme Deep Field Image copyright                   NASA / ESA                                                        
Image caption                                      The Deep Field images require Hubble to stare at the same patch of sky for days on end                              

                                 Presentational white space                      

It’s amazing to think that when Hubble launched, scientists had yet to detect the first exoplanet, the name given to a planet orbiting a star other than our Sun. Today, Hubble is pioneering the study of these far-off worlds, examining their atmospheres to try to gauge their nature.

And although the sparkling eight-meter-class ground-based telescopes can now match – and even exceed – Hubble’s skill in certain fields of study, the space telescope remains peerless in going super-deep.

Its so-called Deep Field observations in which it stared at a small patch of sky for days on end to identify the existence of very distant, extremely faint galaxies is one of the towering achievements in astronomy.

These studies have shown us what the Universe was like just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Only JWST, with its finely-tuned infrared detectors, will go deeper still.

                                  Image copyright                   NASA / ESA                                                        
Image caption                                      A Hubble classic: The Veil Nebula is the expanding debris of an exploded star                              

                                 Presentational white space                      

Kathryn Sullivan was one of the astronauts onboard Space Shuttle Discovery when it released Hubble into its 646 km-high orbit on (April, – a day she recounts in a recent book, Handprints On Hubble .

“Hubble’s scientific impact has just been immense. But what I had not really appreciated until I started writing my book was the extent to which Hubble – because of its gorgeous images and their mind-bending implications – has really permeated popular culture, “she told BBC News.

“I see Hubble on the side of U-Haul (rental) trailers, on tattoos, on lunchboxes, on shirts, in advertisements, almost ubiquitously.

“And I think part of that is down to Hubble coming into service just as the internet was becoming the thin g we now know it to be.

“That’s put the pictures right in front of people.”

                                 JWST Image copyright                   NASA                                                        
Image caption                                      JWST will study the Universe at longer wavelengths of light                              

                                 Presentational white space                      

Hubble : The Wonders of Space Revealed is broadcast on BBC Two at (BST on) April.

[email protected] and follow me on Twitter: @ BBCAmos             

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