Monday , September 28 2020

No One Can Agree How Fast Universe Is Expanding. New Measure Makes Things Worse. – Livescience.com, Livescience.com


Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies RefuelAn artist’s impression of a quasar. New measurements of the universe’s expansion have relied on the gravitational lensing of light from six quasars.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies RefuelQuasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel(Image: © ESO / L. Calçada / ESA / AOES Medialab)

HONOLULU – A crisis in physics may have just gotten deeper. By looking at how the light from distant bright objects is bent, researchers have increased the discrepancy between different methods for calculating the expansion rate of the universe.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

“The measurements are consistent with indicating a crisis in cosmology,” Geoff Chih-Fan Chen, a cosmologist at the University of California, Davis, said here during a news briefing on Wednesday (Jan. 8) at the th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

At issue is a number known as (the **********************. It was first calculated by American astronomer Edwin Hubble nearly a century ago, after he realized that every galaxy in the universe was zipping away from Earth at a rate proportional to that galaxy’s distance from our planet.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

************ (Related:

) ************************* From Big Bang to Present: Snapshots of Our Universe Through Time

********************This does not mean that Earth is at the center of the cosmos. Instead, the finding told scientists that the universe is expanding and that there is a direct relationship between how far apart two objects are and how fast they are receding from one another. The Hubble constant has a value that incorporates this speed-distance connection.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

The problem is that, in recent years, different teamshave disagreed over what exactly this constant’s value is. Measurements made using the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a remnant from(the Big Bangthat provides a snapshot of the infant universe, suggest that the Hubble constant is (***********************************************************, mph per million light-years (or, using cosmologists’ units,.4 kilometers / second per megaparsec ).Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies RefuelBut by looking at pulsating stars known as Cepheid variables, a different group of astronomers has calculated the Hubble constant to be (*********************************************************************, ********************************************** mph per million light-years ( .4 km / s / Mpc).Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

The discrepancy seems small, but there is no overlap between the independent values ​​and neither side has been willing to concede major mistakes in its methodology.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

The new measurement, made by the H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL’s Wellspring ( H0LICOW) collaboration, was an attempt to calculate the Hubble constant in a completely novel way. (COSMOGRAIL is the acronym for Cosmological Monitoring of Gravitational Lenses.)Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

This measure uses the fact that massive objects in the universe will warp the fabric of space-time, meaning that light will bend as it travels past them. Superluminous, black-hole-powered entities called quasars are sometimes found behind large foreground galaxies, and their light gets warped by this bending process, which is known as (******************** gravitational lensingQuasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

Using the Hubble Space Telescope, the H0LICOW team studied the light from six quasars between 3 billion and 6.5 billion light-years away from Earth. As the quasars’ black holes gobbled material, their light would flicker.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

The intervening gravitationally lensing galaxy bent each quasar’s light, and so the quasar’s flickering arrived at Earth at different times depending on what path it took around the foreground galaxy, Chen said. The length of the time delay provided a way to probe the expansion rate of the universe, he added.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

H0LiCOW was able to derive a value of the Hubble constant of (********************************************************************, mph per million light-years 73. 3 km / s / Mpc), extremely close to that provided by Cepheid variables but quite far from the CMB measurement.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

“The consequence is the tension is very well likely real,” Chen said and probably not the result of errors in the methods of each approach.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

It’s worth noting that last year another

independent measurementof the Hubble constant, made using giant red stars, came squarely between the two sides, calculating a value of (*********************************************************************, mph per million light-years ( .8 km / s / Mpc (. Nevertheless, Chen said, the different numbers are far enough apart that it’s possible there is something wrong in our models of the universe. A growing number of physicists are acknowledging this, he added, because the independent measurements continue to disagree. Researchers might have to come up with new physics******* to explain what’s going on.Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies Refuel

  • The Biggest Unsolved Mysteries in Physics
  • ************************ TheQuasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies RefuelBiggest Unanswered Questions About Dark Matter.************************** (The ************************************************************** Weirdest Galaxies in Our Universe************Quasar Artist's Impression How Galaxies RefuelOriginally published on

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