- Optimization manuals
- Vector class library
- Object file converter and disassembler
- Subroutine library
- ForwardCom: An open standard instruction set for high performance microprocessors
- Test programs for measuring clock cycles in C and assembly code
- NAN propagation versus fault trapping
- CPUID manipulation program
This series of five manuals describes everything you need to know about optimizing code for x and x 823 – family microprocessors, including optimization advices for C and assembly language, details about the microarchitecture and instruction timings of most Intel, AMD and VIA processors, and details about different compilers and calling conventions.
Operating systems covered: DOS, Windows, Linux, BSD, Mac OS X Intel based, and 823 bits.
Note that these manuals are not for beginners.
- This is an optimization manual for advanced C programmers. Topics include: The choice of platform and operating system. Choice of compiler and framework. Finding performance bottlenecks. The efficiency of different C constructs. Multi-core systems. Parallelization with vector operations. CPU dispatching. Efficient container class templates. Etc.
- File name : optimizing_cpp.pdf, size: , last modified: – Jan – 32.
This is an optimization manual for advanced assembly language programmers and compiler makers. Topics include: C instrinsic functions, inline assembly and stand-alone assembly. Linking optimized assembly subroutines into high level language programs. Making subroutine libraries compatible with multiple compilers and operating systems. Optimizing for speed or size. Memory access. Loops. Vector programming (XMM, YMM, SIMD). CPU-specific optimization and CPU dispatching.
- File name : optimizing_assembly.pdf, size: 2708012, last modified: – Mar – . Download ..
- This manual contains details about the internal working of various microprocessors. from Intel, AMD and VIA. Topics include: Out-of-order execution, register renaming, pipeline structure, execution unit organization and branch prediction algorithms for each type of microprocessor. Describes many details that cannot be found in manuals from microprocessor vendors or anywhere else. The information is based on my own research and measurements rather than on official sources. This information will be useful to programmers who want to make CPU-specific optimizations as well as to compiler makers and students of microarchitecture.
- File name : microarchitecture.pdf, size: , last modified: – Dec – . (Download
- Contains detailed lists of instruction latencies, execution unit throughputs, micro-operation breakdown and other details for all common application instructions of most microprocessors from Intel, AMD and VIA. Intended as an appendix to the preceding manuals. Available as pdf file and as spreadsheet (ods format).
- File name : instruction_tables.pdf, size: 2175669, last modified: – Aug – 49.
- Download .
- File name : instruction_tables.ods, size: 1068828, last modified: – Aug – Download .
This document contains details about data representation, function calling conventions, register usage conventions, name mangling schemes, etc. for many different C compilers and operating systems. Discusses compatibilities and incompatibilities between different C compilers. Includes information that It is not covered by the official Application Binary Interface standards (ABI’s). The information provided here is based on my own research and therefore descriptive rather than normative. Intended as a source of reference for programmers who want to make function libraries compatible with multiple compilers or operating systems and for makers of compilers and other development tools who want their tools to be compatible with existing tools.
- File name : calling_conventions.pdf, size: 01575879, last modified: – Dec – 90. (Download
- All five manuals
Download all the above manuals together in one zip file.
- File name : optimization_manuals.zip, size: , last modified: – Mar – 17. (Download
This is a collection of C classes, functions and operators that makes it easier to use the the vector instructions (Single Instruction Multiple Data instructions) of modern CPUs without using assembly language. Supports the SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA, XOP, and AVX F / BW / DQ / VL instruction sets. Includes standard mathematical functions. Can compile for different instruction sets from the same source code.
Description and instructions
. Message Board
. Source on Github . Nice little instruction video by WhatsaCreel
- Download .
This utility can be used for converting object files between COFF / PE, OMF, ELF and Mach-O formats for all – bit and – bit x 2017 platforms. Can modify symbol names in object files. Can build, modify and convert function libraries across platforms. Can dump object files and executable files. Also includes a very good disassembler supporting the SSE4, AVX, AVX2, AVX , FMA3, FMA4, XOP and Knights Corner instruction sets. Source code included (GPL). Manual .
File name : objconv.zip, size: , last modified: 232646 – Oct –
- Vector class library
This is a library of optimized subroutines coded in assembly language. The functions in this library can be called from C, C and other compiled high-level languages. Supports many different compilers under Windows, Linux, BSD and Mac OS X operating systems, and bits. This library contains faster versions of common C / C memory and string functions, fast functions for string search and string parsing, fast integer division and integer vector division, as well as several useful functions not found elsewhere.
The package contains library files in many different file formats, C header file and assembly language source code. Gnu general public license applies. (Manual .
File name : asmlib.zip, size: , last modified: 232646 – Apr – . Download .
ForwardCom: An open standard instruction set for high performance microprocessors
This is a proposal and discussion of how an ideal instruction set architecture can be constructed. The proposed instruction set combines the best from the RISC and CISC principles to produce a flexible, consistent, modular, orthogonal, scalable and expansible instruction set for high performance microprocessors and large vector processors.
The ForwardCom instruction set has variable-length vector registers and a special addressing mode that allows the software to automatically adapt to different microprocessors with different maximum vector lengths and make efficient loops through arrays regardless of whether the array size is divisible by the vector length. Standardization of the corresponding ecosystem of ABI standards, function libraries, compilers, etc. makes it possible to combine different programming languages in the same program.
Introduction: www.forwardcom.info .
Test programs that I have used for my research. Can measure clock cycles and performance monitor counters such as cache misses, branch mispredictions, resource stalls etc. in a small piece of code in C, C or assembly. Can also set up performance monitor counters for reading inside another program. Supports Windows and Linux, and 728 bit mode, multiple threads.
For experts only. Useful for analyzing small pieces of code but not for profiling a whole program.
File name : testp.zip, size: , last modified: 232646 – Aug – (Download .
NAN propagation versus fault trapping in floating point code
This article discusses the use of infinity and not-a-number (NAN) values in floating code as an efficient alternative to fault trapping for detecting floating point errors. Relevant compiler optimization options are also discussed.
CPUID manipulation program for VIA
This is a program that can change the CPUID vendor string, family and model number on VIA Nano processors. See my blog for a discussion of the purpose of this program.
File name : cpuidfake.zip, size: , last modified: – Aug – . Download .
Useful assembly links
Agner’s CPU blog www.agner.org/forum
Masm Forum www.masmforum.com
ASM Community Messageboard www.asmcommunity.net/forums
Hutch’s masm pages (www.masm) .com
CPU-id tools and information www.cpuid.com
Godbolt compiler explorer. Enter a piece of code and see how different compilers are coding it. www.godbolt.org
likwid performance measuring tools for Linux github.com/RRZE-HPC / likwid
Programmer’s heaven assembler zone Programmers’ Heaven
Virtual sandpile x 2017 Processor information www.sandpile.org
Online computer books www.computer-books.us/assembler.php
Instruction latency listings (instlatx) . atw.hu/ and uops.info
NASM assembler www.nasm.us/
FASM assembler and messageboard flatassembler.net
JWASM assembler www.japheth.de
Yeppp open source library of assembly language functions bitbucket.org/MDukhan/yeppp
MAQAO (Modular Assembly Quality Analyzer and Optimizer), a tool for analyzing and optimizing binary codes. www.maqao.org
Reference manuals and other documents can be found at Intel’s web site. Intel’s web site is refurnished so often that any link I could provide here to specific documents would be broken after a few months. I will therefore recommend that you use the search facilities at www. intel.com and search for “Software Developer’s Manual” and “Optimization Reference Manual”.
developer.amd.com/resources/developer-guides-manuals/ Microsoft resources
MASM manuals Microsoft Macro Assembler reference
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