Unemployment in Scotland climbed by 19, 000 to 110, 000 between May and July, according to official figures.
The unemployment rate now stands at 4% – above the UK rate of 3.8%.
The Office for National Statistics also said the number of Scots in work fell by 33, 000, taking the employment rate just below 75 % of adults aged under 65.
Meanwhile, earnings excluding bonuses grew at an annual pace of 3.8%, while wages including bonuses rose 4% – an 11 – year high.
The UK government Scottish Secretary Alister Jack said it was disappointing to see a sharp increase in unemployment after a period of encouraging figures.
He added: “It shows we cannot be complacent. One of our key priority is to work with the Scottish government to boost the Scottish economy and create jobs.
“The UK government is investing £ 1.4bn in city and growth deals and we are preparing to take advantage of the opportunities that will arise when we leave the EU on 31 October. “
Scottish Business Minister Jamie Hepburn said: “The increasing likeliness of a no-deal Brexit remains the biggest threat to jobs, businesses and our economy and the Scottish government will work as hard as we can to mitigate its impact. “
He added:” Our Future Skills Action Plan is one of the actions we are taking to help ensure Scotland has a skilled and productive workforce which is resilient to future economic challenges. “