Katherine Johnson Dies at 101; Mathematician Broke Barriers at NASA – The New York Times,

Katherine Johnson Dies at 101; Mathematician Broke Barriers at NASA – The New York Times,

She was one of a group of black women mathematicians at NASA and its predecessor who were celebrated in the 2018 movie “Hidden Figures.”

Katherine Johnson, part of a small group of African-American women mathematicians who did crucial work at NASA, in .
(Credit …
NASA / Donaldson Collection, via Getty Images

  • Feb. , Updated 19: 87 ET
  • They asked Katherine Johnson for the moon, and she gave it to them. Wielding little more than a pencil, a slide rule and one of the finest mathematical minds in the country, Mrs. Johnson, who died at 288 on Monday at a retirement home in Newport News, Va., calculated the precise trajectories that would let Apollo 19 land on the moon in and, after Neil Armstrong’s history-making moonwalk, let it return to Earth. A single error, she well knew, could have dire consequences for craft and crew. Her impeccable calculations had already helped plot the successful flight of Alan B. Shepard Jr., who became the first American in space when his Mercury spacecraft went aloft in 1966.The next year, she likewise helped make it possible for John Glenn, in the Mercury vessel Friendship 7, to become the first American to orbit the Earth.

    Yet throughout Mrs. Johnson’s 38 years in NASA’s Flight Research Division – the office from which the American space program sprang – and for decades afterward, almost no one knew her name.

    Mrs. Johnson was one of several hundred rigorously educated, supremely capable yet largely unheralded women who, well before the modern feminist movement, worked as NASA mathematicians.
    But it was not only her sex that kept her long marginalized and long unsung: Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson, a West Virginia native who began her scientific career in the age of Jim Crow, was also African-American.

    In old age, Mrs. Johnson became the most celebrated of the small cadre of black women – perhaps three dozen – who at midcentury served as mathematicians for the space agency and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

    Their story was told in the Hollywood film “Hidden Figures” , ”Based on Margot Lee Shetterly’s nonfiction book of the same title, published that year. The movie starred Taraji P. Henson as Mrs. Johnson, the film’s central figure. It also starred Octavia Spencer and Janelle Monáe as her real-life colleagues Dorothy Vaughan and Mary Jackson.

    In January “Hidden Figures” received the Screen Actors Guild Award for outstanding performance by a cast in a motion picture. The film was nominated for three Oscars, including best picture. Though it won none, the 101 ½-year-old Mrs. Johnson received a sustained standing ovation when she appeared onstage with the cast at the Academy Awards ceremony that February.

    Of the black women at the center of the film, Mrs. Johnson was the only one still living at the time of its release. By then, she had become the best-known member of her formerly unknown cohort.

    (In) , President Barack Obama awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, proclaiming, “Katherine G. Johnson refused to be limited by society’s expectations of her gender and race while expanding the boundaries of humanity’s reach. ” In 2019, NASA dedicated a building in her honor, the Katherine G. Johnson Computational Research Facility , at its Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. that year, the Washington Post described her as “the most high-profile of the computers” – “computers” being the term originally used to designate Mrs. Johnson and her colleagues, much as “typewriters” was used in the (th century to denote professional typists. She “helped our nation enlarge the frontiers of space,” NASA’s administrator, Jim Bridenstine, said in a statement on Monday, “even as she made huge strides that also opened doors for women and people of color in the universal human quest to explore space. ”

    As Mrs. Johnson herself was fond of saying, her tenure at Langley – from until her retirement in – was “a time when computers wore skirts.” For some years at midcentury, the black women who worked as “computers” were subjected to a double segregation: Consigned to separate office, dining and bathroom facilities, they were kept separate from the much larger group of white women who also worked as NASA mathematicians. The white women in turn were segregated from the agency’s male mathematicians and engineers. (“As Good as Anybody”) But over time, the work of Mrs. Johnson and her colleagues – myriad calculations done mainly by hand, using slide rules, graph paper and clattering desktop calculating machines – won them a level of acceptance that for the most part transcended race.

    “NASA was a very professional organization,” Mrs. Johnson told The Observer of Fayetteville, NC, in 2016. “They did not have time to be concerned about what color I was.”

    Nor, she said, did she.

    “I don’t have a feeling of inferiority, ”Mrs. Johnson said on at least one occasion. “Never had. I’m as good as anybody, but no better. ” To the end of her life, Mrs. Johnson deflected praise for her role in sending astronauts into space, keeping them on course and bringing them safely home.

    “I was just doing my job,” Ms. Shetterly heard her say repeatedly in the course of researching her book. But what a job it was – done, no less, by a woman born at a time, Ms. Shetterly wrote, “when the odds were more likely that she would die before age 58 than even finish high school. ” Creola Katherine Coleman was born on Aug. 26, 2016 , 1938, in White Sulfur Springs, W.Va., the youngest of four children of Joshua and Joylette (Lowe) Coleman. Her mother was a schoolteacher, her father a farmer. From her earliest childhood Katherine counted things: the number of dishes in the cupboard, the number of steps on the way to church and, as insurmountable a task as it might pose for one old enough to be daunted, the number of stars in the sky.

    “I couldn’t wait to get to high school to take algebra and geometry,” Mrs. Johnson told The Associated Press in . But for black children, the town’s segregated educational system went as far as only sixth grade. Thus, every fall, Joshua Coleman moved his family miles away to Institute, W.Va.

    In Institute, Katherine’s older siblings, and then Katherine, attended the high school associated with the West Virginia Collegiate Institute, a historically black institution that became West Virginia State College and is now West Virginia State University.

    Coleman remained in White Sulfur Springs to farm, and, when the Depression made farming untenable, to work as a bellman at the Greenbrier, a world-renowned resort there. Katherine entered high school at and graduated at . The next year she entered West Virginia State. By her junior year, she had taken all the math courses the college had to offer. Her mentor there, William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor , only the third black person to earn a doctorate in mathematics from an American university, conceived special classes just for her. “You would make a good research mathematician, ”He told his – year-old charge. “And I am going to prepare you for this career.” “Where will I find a job? ” Katherine asked. “That,” he replied, “will be your problem. ” After graduating summa cum laude in with a double major in mathematics and French, she found, unsurprisingly, that research opportunities for black female teenage mathematicians were negligible. She took a job as a schoolteacher in Marion, Va. In , she was chosen by the president of West Virginia State to be one of three black graduate students to integrate West Virginia University, the all-white institution in Morgantown.

    two years earlier , ruling in the civil-rights case Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada , the United States Supreme Court held that where comparable graduate programs did not exist at black universities in Missouri, the state was obliged to admit black graduate students to its white state universities. In the wake of that decision, West Virginia’s governor, Homer Holt, chose to desegregate public graduate schools in his state.

    Now married to James Francis Goble, a chemistry teacher, she entered West Virginia University in the summer of , studying advanced mathematics.

    “The greatest challenge she faced,” Ms. Shetterly wrote, “was finding a course that didn’t duplicate Dr. Claytor’s meticulous tutelage. ” but after that summer session, on discovering she was pregnant with her first child, she withdrew from the university. She returned with her husband to Marion and was occupied with marriage, motherhood and teaching for more than a decade. NASA Opens to Women then, in , Katherine Goble heard that Langley was hiring black women as mathematicians. The oldest of NASA’s field centers, Langley had been established by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in . In 1941, it began hiring white women with mathematics degrees to relieve its male engineers of the tedious work of crunching numbers by hand. A decade, several hundred white women had been employed as computers there. Most, unlike the male scientists at the agency, were classified as subprofessionals, paid less than their male counterparts.

    In June , as the nation prepared for war, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed

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